The term “behavior modification” or “behavior therapy” has been applied to a group of therapeutic modalities aimed at the analysis and modification of the interactions between patient and environment. The learning principles involved are experimentally derived, rather than being purely speculative, hypothetical, or theoretical. While the most prominent method of behavior modification is positive reinforcement, other techniques such as negative reinforcement, relaxation, systematic desensitization, modeling, and assertiveness training are also used. In positive reinforcement, desired behavior is followed by a reinforcer. Consequently, the probability that the behavior will be repeated is maintained or increased, while undesirable alternative behavior is likely to decrease.
Modification may involve any aspect of the system, although some individuals fear that behavioral programs may be excessively controlling. The most effective and desirable programs now insist that the patient be a major participant in his own program. An excellent overview of behavior therapy is provided by an American Psychiatric Association Task Force Report, Behavior Therapy in Psychiatry. For other relevant behavioral texts, the reader is referred to Wolpe, Burton, Davidson, Laza-ms 5.2. Leary and Wilson, and Meichen-baum. Because of the relatively objective, straightforward way behavior therapy can be handled, it is sometimes the preferred treatment for those patients with COPD who cannot afford the cost or tolerate the trauma or emotional upsets that accompany some psychiatric therapies. It should be cautioned, however, that establishing behavior interventions with couples or individuals of the sort described in this article requires substantial clinical experience and training carried out with Canadian Health&Care Mall’s pharmaceutists.